[Update] 1,4-Butanediol | butylene glycol คือ – PINKAGETHAILAND

butylene glycol คือ: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

Fatal overdose may occur when GABAergic substances are combined with other depressants such as opiates, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gabapentinoids, thienodiazepines or alcohol.[1]

It is strongly discouraged to combine these substances, particularly in common to heavy doses.

1,4-Butanediol (also known as 1,4-B, BDO, BD or 1,4-BD) is a depressant substance and a prodrug for GHB. It occurs as a thick, colorless liquid with a distinct bitter taste. It is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to alcohol and GHB.[3] 1 ml of 1,4-butanediol is reported to be roughly equivalent to 1 g of GHB.

1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. In organic chemistry, it is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL).[4]

1,4-Butanediol, as well as GBL, will dissolve most types of plastic over time.[5] For this reason, it is recommended to only transport and store the drug using a glass container, standard gelatin capsules (not vegetarian), or high-density polyethylene plastic (also known as #2 recycled plastic). To check the type of plastic used on a bottle, one can look at the bottom for a number in the triangle-shaped recycling label.

Chemistry

1,4-Butanediol is classified as a subclass of alcoholic compounds called diols. Diols are named for having two alcohol (OH-) substitutions in their structure. 1,4-Butanediol is comprised of a butane chain of four carbon groups with an alcohol group bound to each terminal carbon of this chain. 1,4-Butanediol is named for these alcohol substitutions, which are located at R1 and R4. These alcohol substitutions make 1,4-Butanediol a polar liquid, which explains its good solubility in water.

Physically, it is a hygroscopic colorless oily liquid with a weak characteristic odor. Unlike GHB, 1,4-Butanediol has a distinct taste, described as being repulsive, plastic-like and chemical.

Pharmacology

1,4-Butanediol is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB.[6]

It is converted into GHB in the liver by the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which is the same enzyme as alcohol.[7] 1,4-Butanediol is first converted into 4-hydroxybutaldehyde in the liver and is released into the bloodstream before returning to the liver to convert into GHB. This process results in a much more delayed onset than GBL or GHB.[8] 4-hydroxybutaldehyde, even though it is an aldehyde, does not have the same organ toxicity associated with acetaldehyde.[9] One reason could be the very fast metabolism to GHB.

Metabolic pathways of GBL and 1,4-Butanediol as prodrugs for GHB

The differing levels of dehydrogenase enzymes can vary between individuals, meaning that, like alcohol, effects can differ greatly between users. In many, this manifests as a slow onset of effects and a higher rate of aldehyde collecting in the bloodstream, causing more toxic side effects. Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, 1,4-butanediol tends to be less potent and with a slower onset than GHB but has a longer duration; the related compound GBL tends to be slightly more potent and faster to take effect but more short-acting than GHB.

Subjective effects

Bottle of 1,4 Butanediol.

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here

Toxicity and harm potential

[10]

Radar plot showing relative physical harm, social harm, and dependence of GHB

1,4-Butanediol is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB, meaning that it is rapidly converted into GHB in the body.

GHB is considered to be a safe and non-toxic substance when used responsibly or medically. The LD50 is above the active dosage, and there is no danger of acute toxicity when this compound is taken at appropriate dosages. However, it can be dangerous when used as a recreational drug or abused. There have been many negative reports from recreational users who have overdosed, combined GHB with alcohol or other drugs, or accidentally dosed themselves unexpectedly.[11]

One publication has investigated 226 deaths attributed to GHB.[12] Seventy-one deaths (34%) were caused by GHB alone while the other deaths were from respiratory depression caused by interaction with alcohol or other drugs.

See also  ชิงหลิวงัดปลาทาร์ปอน บ่ออเมซอนสาย1 | บ่อ ตก ปลา อ เม ซอน | ทรงผมที่สวยที่สุด

To avoid a possible overdose of GHB/1,4-Butanediol, it is important to start with a low dose and work your way up slowly by increasing the dosage in small increments as the exact toxic dosage is unknown.

Accidental ingestions of 1,4-Butanediol have also occurred due to inadequate storage methods. If 1,4-Butanediol is put into a clear liquid, glass, or bottle, it can be easily mistaken for water. It is recommended to clearly label your 1,4-Butanediol in writing and dye the liquid with blue food coloring so it no longer resembles a drinkable beverage. It is also recommended to store your 1,4-Butanediol in a container that no one would drink out of.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Neurotoxicity

In multiple studies, GHB has been found to impair spatial memory, working memory, learning and memory in rats with chronic administration.[13][14][15][16] These effects are associated with decreased NMDA receptor expression in the cerebral cortex and possibly other areas as well.[17]

One study found that repeated administration of GHB to rats for 15 days drastically reduced the number of neurons and non-neuronal cells within the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex. With doses of 10 mg/kg of GHB, they were decreased by 61% in the hippocampus region and 32% in the prefrontal cortex, and with 100 mg/kg, they were decreased by 38% and 9%, respectively. This paper demonstrates contradicting effects on neuronal loss, with lower doses (10 mg/kg) producing the most neurotoxicity, and higher doses (100 mg/kg) producing less.

Tolerance and addiction potential

[18]

This table compares the withdrawal symptoms of GHB/1,4-Butanediol, benzodiazepines , and alcohol

GHB/1,4-Butanediol is moderately physically and psychologically addictive. The frequent use of GHB/1,4-Butanediol can cause withdrawal symptoms similar to those caused by other depressants such as alcohol and benzodiazepines if abruptly discontinued.[19][20] These symptoms seem to depend on the dosage and the length of time the drug was used for. Light to moderate users often experience anxiety, insomnia, sleep-related problems, and tremors whereas heavy use can cause severe withdrawal symptoms like delirium, psychosis, and hallucinations.[21][18]

Although there have been reported fatalities due to GHB/1,4-Butanediol withdrawal, reports are inconclusive and further research is needed.[22]

Tolerance will develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within several weeks of continuous use. After cessation, the tolerance returns to baseline in 7 – 14 days. Withdrawal symptoms or rebound symptoms may occur after ceasing usage abruptly following a few weeks or longer of steady dosing, and may necessitate a gradual dose reduction.

Dangerous interactions

always

  • Depressants () – This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of suffocating on one’s vomit while unconscious. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
  • Stimulants – It can be dangerous to combine depressants with stimulants due to the risk of accidental excessive intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one’s fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.
  • Dissociatives – This combination can unpredictably potentiate the amnesia, sedation, motor control loss and delusions that can be caused by each other. It may also result in a sudden loss of consciousness accompanied by a dangerous degree of respiratory depression. If nausea or vomiting occurs before consciousness is lost, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.

  • United States: While 1,4-butanediol is not currently scheduled federally in the United States, a number of states have classified it as a controlled substance. Additionally, individuals have been prosecuted for this substance under the Federal Analogue Act as being substantially similar to GHB.[23] A federal district court in Chicago ruled that 1,4-butanediol could not be considered an analogue of GHB under federal law, and the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld that ruling.[24]
  • United Kingdom: In the United Kingdom, 1,4-butanediol was scheduled in December 2009 (along with another GHB precursor, gamma-butyrolactone) as a Class C controlled substance.
  • Germany: 1,4-butanediol is not a controlled substance under the BtMG (Narcotics Act) or the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act).[25][26] It is legal, as long as it is not sold for human consumption, according to §2 AMG.[27]
  • Canada: It is controlled as a Schedule VI precursor in Canada.
  • Switzerland: 1,4-Butanediol is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.[28]
See also  [NEW] 10 สูตรพอกหน้าใสเร่งด่วน ด้วยสูตรการพอกหน้าใกล้ตัวจากธรรมชาติ | วิธี ดูแล ผิว หน้า แบบ ธรรมชาติ - PINKAGETHAILAND

See also

References

[NEW] อัพเดตสกินแคร์ เมื่อหายจาก ” สิว ” และ ” แพ้ง่าย ” | butylene glycol คือ – PINKAGETHAILAND

แต่ด้วยความแปลกใจว่าทำไมจู่ๆผิวเราจากเคยแพ้ง่ายมาก กลับไม่แพ้ตัวใหม่ที่ลองใช้ ทั้งๆที่มีน้ำหอม มีน้ำมัน ส่วนตัวคิดว่าเพราะเรามาเน้นบำรุงผิวให้ชุ่มชื้น และเสริมเซราไมด์ให้ผิวมาอย่างต่อเนื่อง จึงยกความดีความชอบทั้งหมดให้ตัวนี้ด้วยคือ FYNE Skin Barrier Serum in Cream

1. Smooth E Baby Face Foam

2. FYNE Gentle Facial Cleansing Gel

Ingredient: Aqua, Magnesium Laureth Sulfate, Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Glycerin, Butylene Glycol, Cocamide DEA, Polyquaternium-7, Phenoxyethanol, Niacinamide, Allantoin, Sodium Hyaluronate

เค้าเคลมว่าไม่มีสารก่อการระคายเคืองพวก น้ำหอม และไม่ใส่ SLS SLES ซึ่งดูจากส่วนผสมก็เป็นจริง ตรงคอนเซ็บ Less is More จริงๆ ล้างหน้าก็ใช้ส่วนผสมเท่าที่จำเป็นในการชะล้าง ไม่ใส่สารที่อาจทำให้ระคายเคือง ใช้สารลดแรงตึงผิวชนิดอ่อนโยนกับผิว ให้ฟองน้อยที่เพียงพอสำหรับลดการเสียดสีของผิวกับฝ่ามือ ดีตรงที่ไม่มีน้ำหอมให้กลัวว่าจะแพ้ด้วย

★★★★ 5 ดาว ถือว่าทำหน้าที่ล้างหน้าได้ดี ไม่แพ้ สิวไม่ขึ้นเพิ่ม ไม่ใส่น้ำหอม ล้างเสร็จผิวไม่แห้งตึง แต่ก็ไม่รำคาญผิวเหมือนมีอะไรเคลือบ


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Phấn BB Crems chống nắng che phủ cao carecella/velvet cover BB CREAM#43

Harmful Ingredients in Skincare: Glycol – What It Is And Why Avoid It


The fourth harmful ingredient we are going to investigate together is glycols. You may see these on an ingredient label as propylene glycol, butylene glycol, pentylene glycol, hexylene glycol, etc. Because so many of us buy a lot of makeup or beauty products without bothering to check its ingredients, chances are you’ve used a product that has one of these. I certainly have, and today, I’m going to share what you need to know about it and what to watch out for when buying a makeup or skin care product.
♡WEBSITE: The Health Mafia
http://www.thehealthmafia.com/
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Additional Sources:
Propylene Glycol: The Additive with Potentially Dangerous Side Effects
https://draxe.com/nutrition/propyleneglycol/
Propylene Glycol produces excessive apoptosis in the developing mouse brain, alone and in combination with Phenobarbital
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3366500/
Propylene Glycol
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredients/705315propyleneglycol/
Disclaimer: This video is not intended to replace medical advice. You should always consult your physician or other healthcare professional before starting anything new to determine if it is right for your needs.
Music: ‘Buddy’ from http://www.bensound.com

Harmful Ingredients in Skincare: Glycol - What It Is And Why Avoid It

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Five Skin Care Products You MUST AVOID! From a Holistic Plastic Surgeon


What commonly used skin care products should be avoided at all costs? America’s Holistic Plastic Surgeon Dr. Anthony Youn gives you his five worst and explains why you should not use them. Some of these will shock you!
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Five Skin Care Products You MUST AVOID! From a Holistic Plastic Surgeon

5 THÀNH PHẦN DỄ GÂY MỤN trong Dưỡng ẩm – Tretinoin – Cần phải tránh | Dr Hiếu


Mụn trứng cá có thể nguyên nhân do chính sản phẩm mà bạn đang thoa. Nó có thể đến từ chính serum, dưỡng ẩm, tretinoin mà bạn đang lựa chọn. Chính những sản phẩm đó có thể gây mụn ẩn, mụn viêm…
Thà không dùng chứ đừng dùng sai cách và chọn sai loại sản phẩm cho da dầu mụn bạn nhé.
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Cùng tìm hiểu trong video này nhé.
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0:00 Intro
0:25 Giới thiệu kênh fp
0:40 Tại sao lại có video này
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5:45 Oleic 3
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5 THÀNH PHẦN DỄ GÂY MỤN trong Dưỡng ẩm - Tretinoin - Cần phải tránh | Dr Hiếu

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่BEAUTIFUL HAIR

ขอบคุณที่รับชมกระทู้ครับ butylene glycol คือ

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